Virtual Vocabulary - can you navigate an interview involving all these terms?

Term Acronym Concept Area Definition
Account     User identity, implying some contractual relationship
Agility     In business, the capability of rapidly and efficiently adapting to changes; can be applied to, for example, business, process, and technology
API standard   See standard API
Appliance   A preconfigured bundle of hardware and software integrated at the factory, created for a specific purpose, and typically packaged with services at time of sale; metaphorically refers to electric apparatus as in a household appliance.
Application   Software that provides the functions that are required by an IT service; each application may be part of more than one IT service and runs on one or more servers or clients
Application Programming Interface API   A particular set of rules and specifications that software programs can follow to communicate with each other; it serves as an interface between different software programs and facilitates their interaction, similar to the way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers.
Application service provider Service Design (This term is now superseded by SaaS service provider, though not exactly identical) (ITIL phase: Service Design) An external service provider that provides IT services using applications running at the service provider?s premises; users access the applications by network connections to the service provider
Application stack   A set of related/dependent software assets, for example, Web server plus database and middleware
Architecture Service Design (ITIL phase: Service Design) The structure of a system or IT service, including the relationships of components to each other and to the environment they are in; architecture also includes the standards and guidelines, which guide the design and evolution of the system
Arrays     Consolidated devices containing a large number of discs and other technology that provide reliability and additional benefits layered on basic storage.
Assets   Service Strategy Asset: (ITIL phase: Service Strategy) Any resource or capability; assets of a service provider include anything that could contribute to the delivery of a service; assets can be one of the following types: Management, Organization, Process, Knowledge, People, Information, Applications, Infrastructure, and Financial Capital
Asynchronous   Not at the same time, as in-service provisioning without blocking the requestor of the service
Audit     Formal inspection and verification to check whether a standard or set of guidelines is being followed, that records are accurate, or that efficiency and effectiveness targets are being met; an audit may be carried out by internal or external groups.
Authentication   Establishing the individual identity of a user or determining that the user has certain attributes oris a member of a specified group; the user can be a real user or can be a system or service
Authorization   The process or determining a specific user's eligibility to gain access to an application or function or to make use of a resource; a right or permission that is granted to access a system resource; see also definition of authentication
Automation   Replacement of manual procedures by machines, including hardware and software
Availability Service Design (ITIL phase: Service Design) Ability of a Configuration Item or IT service to perform its agreed function when required; availability is determined by reliability, maintainability, serviceability, performance, and security; availability is usually calculated as a percentage; this calculation is often based on agreed service time and downtime; it is best practice to calculate availability using measurements of the business output of the IT service
Backup   Service Design (ITIL phase: Service Design) (ITIL phase: Service Operation) Copying data to protect against loss of integrity or availability of the original
Bandwidth   The amount of data that can be transmitted per unit of time, for example, Gigabit/second
Batch application   An application with low response time requirements, in comparison with interactive applications, often with high volumes and run on a regular basis
Block-Based Storage Storage that is presented as an abstraction of a disk.
Branch computing   A way of operating IT, where every branch office has its own infrastructure and support (becoming obsolete)
Browser     A software program to access content on the Internet, in particular the world wide web of HTTP servers, addressed by a URL
Business continuity   The capability of a business to continue operating in the face of adverse conditions
Business continuity management Service Design (ITIL phase: Service Design) The business process responsible for managing risks that could seriously impact the business; BCM safeguards the interests of key stakeholders, reputation, and brand and value-creating activities; the BCM process involves reducing risks to an acceptable level and planning for the recovery of business processes should a disruption to the business occur; BCM sets the objectives, scope, and requirements for IT Service Continuity Management
Business intelligence The application of analytical techniques and processes to data to gain insights and knowledge useful to the optimization of a business or business function
Business model   A blueprint/description of the way a company creates value, including the types of products and their combined pricing structure
Calls (Web services calls) Atomic invocations that make up the use of Web services
Capacity   Service Design (ITIL phase: Service Design) The maximum throughput that a Configuration Item or IT service can deliver while meeting agreed service level targets; for some types of CIs, capacity may be the size or volume, for example, a disk drive
Capacity Management Service Design (ITIL phase: Service Design) The process responsible for ensuring that the capacity of IT services and the IT infrastructure is able to deliver agreed service level targets in a cost-effective and timely manner; Capacity Management considers all resources required to deliver the IT service and plans for short-, medium-, and long-term business requirements
Capital expenses CapEx Business Cloud Adoption Capital expenses (CapEx): Cloud computing drives greater optimization and utilization of IT assets, allowing you to do more with less and to realize significant cost reduction. You can take on IT capital investments in increments of required capacity instead of building for maximum, or burst, capacity.
Change Advisory Board Service Transition (ITIL phase: Service Transition) A group of people that advises the Change Manager in the assessment, prioritization, and scheduling of changes; this board is usually made up of representatives from all areas within the IT service provider, the business, and third parties, such as suppliers
Change Management Service Transition (ITIL phase: Service Transition) The process responsible for controlling the lifecycle of all changes; the primary objective of Change Management is to enable beneficial changes to bemade, with minimum disruption to IT services
Chargeback   The charging (cost allocation) between units of the same company; similar to cross-charging
Charging   Service Strategy (ITIL phase: Service Strategy) Requiring payment for IT services; charging for IT services is optional, and many organizations choose to treat their IT service provider as a cost center
Chief Information Officer CIO   The person responsible for an organization; IT strategy and services
Client     A computer that is used directly by a user, for example, a PC, handheld computer, or workstation; the part of a client/server application that the user directly interfaces with, for example, an e-mail client
Cloud broker   Cloud Broker: An entity that manages the use, performance, and delivery of cloud services,
Cloud computing   Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (for example, networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction; this cloud model has five essential characteristics ? on-demand self-service, broad network access; resource pooling, rapid elasticity, measured service
Cloud customer NIST SAJACC Cloud subscriber; a person or organization that has been authenticated to a cloud and maintains a business relationship with a cloud (Source: NIST SAJACC)
Cloud ecosystem   An interrelated and interdependent set of providers of cloud services and products
Cloud Management provider A Cloud Management provider provides all the service-related functions that are necessary for the management and operations of those services required by or proposed to customers
Cloud provider   The person, organization, or entity responsible for making a service available to service consumers
Cloud service provider The person, organization, or entity responsible for making a service available to service consumers
Cloud services   Services that are delivered by cloud providers
Cloudscape   Short for cloud landscape; the entirety of assets, services, vendors, and service contracts
Community cloud NIST CC Community cloud, a cloud infrastructure that is shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (for example, mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations); it may be managed by the organizations or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise (Source: NIST CC Definition)
Compliance   Ensuring that a standard or set of guidelines is followed or that appropriate, consistent accounting or other practices are being employed
Confidentiality Service Design The security goal that generates the requirement for protection from intentional or accidental attempts to perform unauthorized data reads; confidentiality covers data in storage, during processing, and in transit (ITIL phase: Service Design); a security principle that requires that data should only be accessed by authorized people
Configuration Service Transition (ITIL phase: Service Transition) A generic term used to describe a group of Configuration Items that work together to deliver an IT service or a recognizable part of an IT service; configuration is also used to describe the parameter settings for one or more CIs
Configuration Management Database CMDB Service Transition Configuration Management Database (ITIL phase: Service Transition) A database used to store configuration records throughout their lifecycle; the Configuration Management System maintains one or more CMDBs, and each CMDB stores attributes of CIs and the relationships with other CIs
Configuring   The process of developing and deploying a configuration (see configuration)
Connectivity   As in Internet connectivity: the capability of making connections to, for example, servers on the Internet
Content delivery network A network of geographically distributed servers that replicate data (content) to users and otherwise improve the content and its delivery for users
Content distribution network A synonym for a content delivery network
Contingency plan   A plan of which the execution is conditional upon a specific (typically negative) event
Controller (in the context of privacy) Broadly: A person or organization determining what happens with data; see also EU data protection directive
Corruption (of data)   Changes to data that reduce its integrity or usefulness, typically as a result of hardware/software failure
Cost per seat   Total cost divided by maximum number of simultaneous users or alternatively, the number of registered users
CPU     The component of a computer system that controls the interpretation and execution of instructions
Credential   Proof of identity issued by a trusted identity provider
Cross-charging   The way one organizational unit compensates another unit of the same organization
Custom Web site   A Web site specifically built for a particular purpose, as opposed to being an instance of a generic service (for example, a blog)
Customer   Someone who buys goods or Services; the customer of an IT service provider is the person or group who defines and agrees on the service level targets; the term customers is also sometimes informally used to mean users, for example, this is a customer-focused organization
Customer Relationship Management system CRM    An information system to record data about customers and interactions with customers
Data center   A physical building with a substantial number of servers, storage, and network connections
Data format   The type of encoding of data
Deployment Service Transition (ITIL phase: Service Transition) The activity responsible for movement of new or changed hardware, software, documentation, processes, and so on to the live environment; deployment is part of the Release and Deployment Management process
Desktop productivity (tools) An application category including word processing, typically operating on a user's personal data
Developer, development Service Design Development: (ITIL phase: Service Design) The process responsible for creating or modifying an IT service or application; also used to mean the role or group that carries out development work
Digital identities   The digital representation of an identity.
Disk drive   A class of nonvolatile storage devices; traditionally magnetic or optical, but often used as a generic term for randomly accessible permanent storage.
Disks     Magnetic storage devices that can quickly retrieve and store data.
Download   Transfer of data, typically from a server to a user
Downtime Service Design (ITIL phase: Service Design) (ITIL phase: Service Operation) The time when a Configuration Item or IT service is not available during its agreed service time; the availability of an IT service is often calculated from agreed service time and downtime
Ecosystem   See cloud ecosystem
Edge server   On a content delivery network, a server that is nearest to the final destination
Elastic     In the context of cloud computing, being able to grow and shrink
Encoding     Transliteration of information into a specific set of symbols
Enterprise Storage   Consolidated storage devices made available to a number of computers over a network, and the services to support and deliver their capacity.
Environment Service Transition (ITIL phase: Service Transition) A subset of the IT infrastructure that is used for a particular purpose; for example, live environment, test environment, and build environment.
Execution   Here: Follow/effect instructions
Exit process   The process through which a supplier relation is terminated, and relevant assets and services are prepared for transferal to a new supplier
Exit strategy   The planned set of actions to terminate the contract with a provider and move assets and service usage to another provider; this could be for business reasons or because the provider goes out of business
Externalizing   Bringing assets and service owners outside the organization; similar to outsourcing
Extranet     Secure network/IT assets, shared by autonomous organizations
Fabric     In the context of cloud computing, indicating a network of component, federated
Federated identity   An identity accepted by a federation
Federation   In the context of IT, a set of organizations with some trust relation, in this case with respect to member or user identities
File-Based Storage   Storage that is presented over a network or locally as files and directories/folders.
Firewall     A function to restrict network access according to specific rules
Functionality   Function: An intended purpose of a Configuration Item, person, team, process, or IT service; for example, one function of an e-mail service may be to store and forward outgoing mails while one function of a business process may be to dispatch goods to customers
Governing, governance Governance: Ensuring that policies and strategy are actually implemented and that required processes are correctly followed; governance includes defining roles and responsibilities, measuring and reporting, and taking actions to resolve any issues identified
Grid computing   A term referring to the combination of computer resources from multiple administrative domains to reach a common goal
Guest operating system An operating system that is run on top of a virtualization layer (that is, hypervisor), not directly on the hardware
Hosting     Providing a server for an application
Hotfixes     A hotfix was originally the term applied to software patches that were applied to live, that is, still running systems; lately the term has been more generally used to denote rapid software updates
Hybrid cloud NIST CC The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (for example, cloud bursting for load-balancing between clouds) (Source: NIST CC Definition)
Identity   Service Operation (ITIL phase: Service Operation) A unique name that is used to identify a user, person, or role; the identity is used to grant rights to that user, person, or role; for example, identities might be the user name SmithJ or the role change manager
Identity Management Identity Management (IdM) is a term related to how humans are identified and authorized across computer networks; it covers issues such as how users are given an identity, the protection of that identity, and the technologies supporting that protection (for example, network protocols, digital certificates, passwords, and so on); includes lifecycle management of these identities
Identity provider   Issuer of identities, typically including the facility to authenticate
Image factory   A service to produce virtual machine images out of specified application components
Information Technology IT   The use of technology for the storage, communication, or processing of information; the technology typically includes computers, telecommunications, applications, and other software;the information may include business data, voice, images, video, and so on; IT is often used to support business processes through IT services
Infrastructure   All the hardware, software, networks, facilities, and so on that are required to develop, test, deliver, monitor, control, or support IT services; the term IT infrastructure includes all of the Information Technology but not the associated people, processes, and documentation
Infrastructure as a Service IaaS NIST CC Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) ? the capability provided to the consumer to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications; the consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems, storage, deployed applications, and possibly limited control over select networking components (for example, host firewalls) (Source: NIST CC Definition)
Integration (software) Here: Bundling applications for use by end users while enabling meaningful data exchange between these applications
Integrity   Service Design (ITIL phase: Service Design) A security principle that ensures that data and Configuration Items are only modified by authorized personnel and activities; integrity considers all possible causes of modification, including software and hardware failure, environmental events, and human intervention
Interactive   Allowing real-time interaction, sometimes used as a synonym for responsive
Interconnect infrastructure Network infrastructure including hardware and security measures
Interfaces   Means through which IT systems are accessed or connected
ISV     Independent Software Vendor
IT infrastructure   All the hardware, software, networks, facilities, and so on that are required to develop, test, deliver, monitor, control, or support IT services; the term IT infrastructure includes all of the Information Technology but not the associated people, processes, and documentation
IT Service Management The implementation and management of quality IT services that meet the needs of the business;IT Service Management is performed by IT service providers through an appropriate mix of people, processes, and Information Technology
IT strategy   A set of objective(s), principles, and tactics relating to the IT that the organization uses
ITIL processes (list of) Information Technology Infrastructure Library: A framework that describes IT Service Management processes
Job     A software task; as part of a batch process
Landscape (IT ..., Cloud ...) The entirety of assets, services, vendors, and service contracts
Latency     In the context of data transmission, the time it takes for data to travel from one place to another
Legacy application   An application with a long history in the organization, often with a high operational and exit cost
Library (application ...) A set of reusable software assets, typically not directly for user use.
License     A legal agreement to be granted the use of something
Load balancer   A (virtual) server that distributes Web traffic over a number of servers
Local network   A network related to a geographically confined space, characterized by having low latencies and high bandwidth
Locally Attached Storage Devices like discs and tapes that are connected to a computer for use on that computer.
Lock-in     Technology dependence with a high migration cost
Logfiles     Records of (system) activity
Management interface A user interface specifically for administrators
Mash-ups   In Web development, a mash-up is a Web page or application that uses and combines data, presentation, or functionality from two or more sources to create new services
Master data   Data that is relatively stable, in contrast to transactional data; for example, catalog data and user identities
Middleware Service Design (ITIL phase: Service Design) Software that connects two or more software components or applications; middleware is usually purchased from a supplier, rather than developed within the IT service provider
Migrating applications See also migration
Migration   Change of provider, supplier, or architecture while retaining some of the current assets
Mitigation   When applied to risk: Reduction of harm or negative effect
Multitenant   A multitenant application has multiple customers sharing the same infrastructure, typically without sharing any data
Network     The technology through which data is transmitted
Network perimeter   Traditionally, the administrative border of the network
Network-Attached Storage Storage that is delivered to computers over general purpose, often Internet-protocol, data networks, as distinct from special purpose, storage-area networks.
NIC     Network Interface Card (hardware)
Online portal   A Web application that serves as a directory to a number of functions
Operating expenses  OpEx Business Cloud Adoption Operating expenses (OpEx): Although IT would continue to make capital investments, Public cloud offerings are billed to the enterprise on a pay-per-use basis, and private clouds can be treated as OpEx by consuming business units. Through automation, cloud computing reduces the amount of time and effort needed to provision and scale IT resources.  
Operating model   An abstract representation of how an organization works, including processes, organization, and technology
Operational assurance Making sure the systems are operational
Operator   Continual Service Improvement Service owner: (ITIL phase: Continual Service Improvement) A role that is accountable for the delivery of a specific IT service
Orchestration   A service to automatically provision interrelated services and (virtual) servers
Outsourcing Service Strategy Contracting the services of outside suppliers instead of providing those services with the company?s own staff and assets; (ITIL phase: Service Strategy) Using an external service provider to manage IT services
Password     A secret used to authenticate a user to an account
Patch     A patch is a change applied to a piece of software designed to fix problems
Performance Management Continual Service Improvement (ITIL phase: Continual Service Improvement) The process responsible for day-to-day Capacity Management activities; these include monitoring, threshold detection, performance analysis and tuning, and implementing changes related to performance and capacity
Physical     In the context of cloud computing and virtualization: Real, as opposed to virtual
Planning, Protection and Optimization, PPO PPO   Availability Management, Capacity Management, IT Service Continuity Management, Information Security Management, Demand Management, Risk Management, and Information Security Management.
Platform     A technology to build software solutions on; typically, a combination of hardware and software
Platform as a Service PaaS NIST CC Platform as a Service (PaaS) ? the capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications created using programming languages and tools supported by the provider. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, or storage, but has control over the deployed applications and possibly application hosting environment configurations. (Source: NIST CC Definition)
Plug-in     An additional piece of software, to add specific abilities to a larger software application, suchas a browser
Privacy     The right of individuals to selectively disclose information about themselves and restrict the further use of that information by any party
Private cloud NIST CC The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization; it may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise (Source: NIST CC definition)
Process maturity Continual Service Improvement (ITIL phase: Continual Service Improvement) A measure of the reliability, efficiency, and effectiveness of a process, function, organization, and so on; the most mature processes and functions are formally aligned to the business objectives and strategy and are supported by a framework for continual improvement
Processor (in the context of privacy) Broadly: Person or organization handling data
Procurement   Acquisition of goods and/or services
Proprietary (technology) Technology that is not freely usable by other vendors, for example, because it is patented or secret
Provider   Service Strategy Service provider: (ITIL phase: Service Strategy) An organization supplying services to one or more internal customers or external customers
Provisioning   Provisioning/configuration? process of preparing and equipping a cloud to allow it to provide (new) services to its users
Public cloud   Public cloud ? the cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services
Real-time   Immediate, without much delay
Redundancy   Replicated assets in order to reduce single points of failure
Reference (local/remote) Here: URL
Relying party   In Identity Management, the party that relies on another party to check credentials
Replicate     A copy, with the intent of using this in production rather than backup
Reporting application An application that produces, for example, monthly reports, as opposed to an application that provides immediate or near-immediate information
Request fulfillment Service Operation (ITIL phase: Service Operation) The process responsible for managing the lifecycle of all service requests
Residual Risk   Risks that remain after all risk management measures have been taken
Resilience Service Design (ITIL phase: Service Design) The ability of a Configuration Item or IT service to resist failure or to recover quickly following a failure, for example, an armored cable will resist failure when put under stress
Resource   Service Strategy (ITIL phase: Service Strategy) A generic term that includes IT Infrastructure, people, money or anything else that might help to deliver an IT service; resources are considered to be the assets of an organization
Risk     A possible event that could cause harm or loss or affect the ability to achieve objectives; a Riskis measured by the probability of a threat, the vulnerability of the asset to that threat, and the impact it would have if it occurred
Risk Management   The process responsible for identifying, assessing, and controlling risks
Risk mitigation   Reduce in effect
Roadmap     In IT, a set of plans with alternatives
Sandbox     In IT, a restricted environment in which software is executed
Scalability   The ability of an IT service, process, Configuration Item, and so on to perform its agreed function when the workload or scope changes
Security entitlements In IT, digital identities and the authorizations associated with them
Security Management Service Design ISM: (ITIL phase: Service Design) The process that ensures the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of an organization?s assets, information, data, and IT services; Information Security Management usually forms part of an organizational approach to Security Management, which has a wider scope than the IT service provider, and includes handling of paper, building access, phone calls, and so on for the entire organization
Sensitive data   Data of which unauthorized disclosure poses a risk
Server   Service Operation (ITIL phase: Service Operation) A computer that is connected to a network and provides software functions that are used by other computers
Service Design Service Design (ITIL phase: Service Design) A stage in the lifecycle of an IT service; ITIL phase: Service Design includes a number of processes and functions and is the title of one of the core ITIL publications
Service Level Agreement SLA NIST SAJACC SLA ? a document explaining expected quality of service and legal guarantees. (Source: NIST-SAJACC)
Service Management Service Management is a set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in the form of services
Service model   A service model describes the way in which one can interact with a service provider: Types ofservice requests and division of obligations
Service Operation SO Service Operation (ITIL phase: Service Operation) A stage in the lifecycle of an IT service; ITIL phase: Service Operation includes a number of processes and functions and is the title of one of the core ITIL publications.
Service Strategy SS Service Strategy (ITIL phase: Service Strategy) The title of one of the core ITIL publications; ITIL phase: Service Strategy establishes an overall strategy for IT services and for IT Service Management.
Service Transition ST Service Transition (ITIL phase: Service Transition) A stage in the lifecycle of an IT service; ITIL phase: Service Transition includes a number of processes and functions and is the title of one of the core ITIL publications.
Service(s)   A means of delivering value to customers by facilitating the outcomes customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific costs and risks.
Social media   Public applications (Web sites and mobile applications) mainly used to interact between people.
Software as a Service SaaS NIST CC Software as a Service (SaaS):  capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider's applications running on a cloud infrastructure; the applications are accessible from various client devices through a thin client interface. such as a Web browser (for example, Web-based e-mail); the consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure, including network, servers, operating systems, storage, or even individual application capabilities, with the possible exception of limited user-specific application configuration settings (Source: NIST CC definition)
Software release Service Transition (ITIL phase: Service Transition) A collection of hardware, software, documentation, processes, or other components required to implement one or more approved changes to IT services; the contents of each release are managed, tested, and deployed as a single entity
Solid-State Storage   Devices that emulate disks but, being made of semiconductor-based memory like RAM and FLASH, are tremendously faster and more expensive.
Sourcing   Service Strategy Service sourcing: (ITIL phase: Service Strategy) The strategy and approach for deciding whether to provide a service internally or to outsource it to an external service provider; service sourcing also means the execution of this strategy
Spreadsheets   A category of software for end-user computing, oftentimes also a category of applications generated and managed by users
Standard API   An API adhered to by a number of independent providers
Storage     The technology through which data is stored
Storage Area Network SAN   Virtualized storage, storage shared between multiple servers
Storage-Area Networks Dedicated networks for connecting enterprise storage devices to each other and to the computers they serve. They are typically run over fiber-optic cables.
Synchronization   Originally, keeping the same time; in the context of IT typically, the process of making data copies identical
System administrators People performing System Management
System integrator SI   A contractor or service provider who assembles hardware, software, and services into an IT asset with business value
System Management The part of IT Service Management that focuses on the management of IT infrastructure rather than on the management of processes
Tape     In IT, magnetic tapes in their capacity as storage devices
Tapes     Magnetic storage devices that store data for later retrieval.
Target platform   A platform for the production environment, as opposed to the development platform
Termination clause   A provision in a contract which allows for its termination under specified circumstances; also called a termination provision
Time sharing system A system through which CPU time is shared over users, historically through simple terminals
Touch points   In IT, interfaces between infrastructure items that are under the control of the organization and outside infrastructure
Transactional awareness In IT, being able to manage and monitor transactions
Uniform Resource Locator URL   An address on the World Wide Web
Updates     New versions, implying some form of compatibility with the previous version
Upgrades (software/capacity) Extending the functionality of software and/or capacity of hardware
Upload     Transfer of data, typically from a user to a server
User interface   The space where interaction between humans and machines occurs (can include technology as well as service and cognitive elements)
Vendor lock-in   The situations where large vendor-specific investments are made, which increase the cost of switching away from that vendor
Vertically integrated Of businesses: Spanning a supply chain from raw goods to final end-user products and services
Virtual appliance   An appliance delivered as a virtual machine image, which includes a bundle of virtual hardware and software created to serve a specific purpose (for example, Web server)
Virtual environment An environment consisting of virtualized resources
Virtual machine   Software that looks and behaves just like a physical server onto which an operating system can be loaded
Virtual Private Network VPN   A seemingly closed and dedicated network using public network resources
Virtual server   A virtualized server, typically including an operating system
Virtualization   Abstracting hardware resources, typically through software, to mask the physical boundaries tothe user (for example, to provide multiple copies of a server)
Virtualized development environment An environment consisting of virtualized resources, in which development is done
Waterfall model   A development approach where phases are executed sequentially
Web hosting   Hosting of Web sites (that is, applications accessed over HTTP)
Web service   An API accessed over the Web
Wide Area Network   A network with a large, potentially global, geographical scope
Workload   The resources required to deliver an identifiable part of an IT Service. Workloads may be categorized by users, groups of users, or functions within the IT service. This is used to assist in analyzing and managing the capacity, performance, and utilization of Configuration Items and IT services. The term Workload is sometimes used as a synonym for Throughput.
Workload portability System portability - the ability of a service to run on more than one type or size of cloud [Source: modified from Federal Standard 1037C]
Workplace   The computing device through which users interact with an information system, also known as endpoint
Workspace   In the context of IT: Client device including business applications
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